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  • Angiogenesis is a process of formation

    2024-02-09

    Angiogenesis is a process of formation of new vessels from arterial vascularization created by endothelial cells. It is essential for the continuous growth of the tumor because it supplies the tumor with nutrients and oxygen, and eliminates cellular waste, which can be toxic to cancer cells [8]. Inflammatory cells and soluble factors are present in all tumors. Signs of “burning” inflammation that include tissue remodeling, angiogenesis and other wound healing characteristics are usually used by pathologists as morphological indices of invasive cancer. Recent evidence demonstrates that these stromal processes play a fundamental role in the development and progression of cancer and, at least in some cases, can predict the clinical behavior of cancer better than the characteristics of neoplastic cells themselves [9]. There are biomolecules present in plants that can neutralize ROS [10,11], prevent inflammation and inhibit tumor angiogenesis [11,12] to finally kill the tumor cells. Also, the plants have been at the origin of many active molecules having shown their effectiveness in the treatment of different cancers, such as breast, ovary and lung treat taxol (paclitaxel) which comes from the aa 629 of Pacific yew (Taxus brevifolia).
    Materials and methods
    Results
    Discussion It is clearly established that free radicals or ROS are involved in the inflammatory and angiogenic process and that inflammation and angiogenesis are among the main phenomena responsible for growth and tumor invasion [5]. The present study consisted of phytochemical screening, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiangiogenic activities of extracts of Lophira procera, a Gabonese medicinal plant used in traditional medicine to treat ulcers, kidney, dental pain, and breast cancer. In addition to the antioxidant effect, by inhibition of protein denaturation (albumin), water extract shows a very strong anti-inflammatory activity compared to that of the reference molecule, diclofenac sodium. This was confirmed by comparing IC50 values. It is a well known fact that denaturation of tissue proteins leads to inflammatory and arthritic diseases [26]. The production of autoantigens in inflammatory diseases may be due to the denaturation of proteins in vivo. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may not only inhibit the synthesis of pro-inflammatory prostaglandins but also inhibit protein denaturation [27]. They prevent the denaturation of thermally treated albumin at physiological pH (pH 6.2–6.5) [22]. Therefore, according to the results of this study, the water extract of Lophira procera is able to control the production of autoantigen by inhibiting the denaturation of proteins and can prevent the release of lytic enzymes and active mediators of inflammation by the stabilization of lysosomal membranes. Its use in traditional medicine against renal and dental pain can therefore be justified. Since the idea of tumor angiogenesis was suggested by Folkman [8], the blocking of tumor-induced angiogenesis was considered an attractive anticancer strategy because anti-angiogenic agents can be used independently of cancer types. The aqueous extract also showed strong antiangiogenic activity by the inhibition of blood vessel formations on chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). Inhibition was dose dependent. In the range of doses tested, no dead embryos were recorded, indicating that the antiangiogenic effect observed was not due to the toxicity of the plant. This extract shows a stronger anti-angiogenic activity than the aqueous extracts of Oncoba welwitschii, Tetrorchidium oppositifolium, which showed a percentage inhibition of 83.334% at 500 μg/mL [14]. The CAM is an extraembryonic membrane whose main function is to ensure the exchange of gases and nutrients. Because of its large vascularity and ease of use, CAM is a popular research tool widely used to study glioma angiogenesis, growth, invasiveness and screening of anti-tumor drugs [28]. Therefore, according to the results, the aqueous extract of Lophira procera may have good inhibitory activity on tumor growth by blocking angiogenesis. Thus the use of Lophira procera in traditional medicine against breast cancer can be justified.